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- 15 years of Forest Certification in the European Union. Are we doing things right? Gafo Gómez-Zamalloa, M.; Caparros, A.; San-Miguel Ayanz, A.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (2011) Type Journal ArticleForest certification is one of the most important issues that have entered the forest sector in the past 15 years. There are many detractors and supporters of this instrument, but merely looking at the number of hectares certified and products carrying the logo of certification, one cannot deny that certification has gained importance, year after year. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of 15 years of forest certification in the EU forest-based sector, using the Delphi method. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the impact of certification in the EU forest- based sector is positive-neutral with respect to ecological aspects, positive-negative on the economic and positive- neutral on the social ones. However, its positive effect is limited, due to the fact that the changes needed for the certification are minor. An improvement in the information to both society and local people by the actors involved in forest certification could increase the positive impact on the sector.
- The 2008-2009 timber sector crisis in Africa and some lessons for the forest taxation regime Karsenty, A.; Bayol, N.; Cerutti, P.O.; Blas, D.E. de; Forni, E.; Forest Stewardship Council (2010) Type Journal Article
- 25 years of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: How intergovernmental C & I processes have made a difference. Linser, S.; Bridge, S.R.J.; Gritten, D.; Johnson, S.; Payn, T.; Prins, K.; Raái, R.; Robertson, G.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (2018) Type Journal ArticleGrowing concern about forest degradation and loss, combined with the political impetus supplied by the Earth Summit in 1992, led to the establishment of eleven intergovernmental, regional, and international forest-related processes focused on the use of criteria and indicators (CandI) for sustainable forest management (SFM). Up to 171 countries have participated in these processes to apply CandI frameworks as a tool for data collection, monitoring, assessment, and reporting on SFM and on achieving various forest-related UN Sustainable Development Goals. Based on an expert survey and literature analysis we identify six interlinked impact domains of CandI efforts: (1) enhanced discourse and understanding of SFM; (2) shaped and focused engagement of science in SFM; (3) improved monitoring and reporting on SFM to facilitate transparency and evidence-based decision-making; (4) strengthened forest management practices; (5) facilitated assessment of progress towards SFM goals; and (6) improved forest-related dialog and communication. We conclude that the 25-year history of CandI work in forestry has had significant positive impacts, though challenges do remain for the implementation of CandI and progress towards SFM. The work should be continued and carried over to other sectors to advance sustainability goals more broadly.
- Aboriginal Peoples and Forest Certification: a Review of the Canadian Situation Tikina, A.V.; Innes, J.L.; Trosper, R.L.; Larson, B.C.; Forest Stewardship Council (2010) Type Journal ArticleWe assess how different certification standards address Aboriginal issues in Canada, augmenting current legislation related to Aboriginal issues. The benefits from forest certification and the obstacles to its adoption by the Aboriginal community are also reviewed. We conclude that it would take significant effort, time, and resources to achieve widespread Aboriginal adoption of forest certification.
- Active restoration accelerates the carbon recovery of human-modified tropical forests Philipson, C.D.; Cutler, M.E.J.; Brodric, P.G.; Asner, G.P.; Boy, D.S.; Costa, P.M.; Fiddes, J.; Food, G.M.; Heijden, G.M.F. van der; Ledo, A.; Lincol, P.R.; Margrov, J.A.; Marti, R.E.; Milne, S.; Pinard, M.A.; Reynolds, G.; Snoep, M.; Tangki, H.; Wai, Y.S.; Wheele, C.E.; Burslem, D.F.R.P. (2020) Type Journal Article
- African apes coexisting with logging: Comparing chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) resource needs and responses to forestry activities Morgan, D.; Mundry, R.; Sanz, C.; Ayina, C.E.; Strindberg, S.; Lonsdorf, E.; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Mixed sources; Forest Stewardship Council (2017) Type Journal ArticleThe extraction of timber often conflicts with the well-being and conservation of wildlife. In particular, there is a need to better understand the impact of tree removal under selective logging regimes on local ecological communities. We conducted ape nest counts along line transects before, during, and after logging to assess the impact of timber harvesting and associated activities on sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas in a forestry con- cession in northern Republic of Congo. We used generalized linear models to relate ape nest counts to a set of predictor variables, representing the impact of logging and controlled for variation in environmental conditions including food availability, habitat and rainfall. Commercial forest inventory data were used to assess the baseline influence of food availability and forest structure on ape distribution. Higher numbers of chimpanzees were found in proximity to their preferred tree foods, whereas gorillas were associated with more heterogeneous habitats. Chimpanzee nest encounter rates decreased with increasing intensity of human impacts. Gorillas also avoided areas with active timber exploitation and roads, but were attracted to recently logged areas with abundant terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. Species-specific responses were consistent with theoretical predic- tions of niche partitioning and cumulative human influence. Based on these findings, we provide re- commendations to improve existing guidelines and forest certification standards aimed at safeguarding ape populations.
- An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture Milder, J.C.; Arbuthnot, M.; Blackman, A.; Brooks, S.E.; Giovannucci, D.; Gross, L.; Kennedy, E.T.; Komives, K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Lee, A.; Meyer, D.; Newton, P.; Phalan, B.; Schroth, G.; Semroc, Bambi; Rikxoort, H.V.; Zrust, M. (2014) Type Journal Article
- Agricultural and forestry trade drives large share of tropical deforestation emissions Pendrill, F.; Persson, U.M.; Godar, J.; Kastner, T.; Moran, D.; Schmidt, S.; Wood, R. (2019) Type Journal ArticleDeforestation, the second largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, is largely driven by expanding forestry and agriculture. However, despite agricultural expansion being increasingly driven by foreign demand, the links between deforestation and foreign demand for agricultural commodities have only been partially mapped. This study presents a pan-tropical quantification of carbon emissions from deforestation associated with the expansion of agriculture and forest plantations, and trace embodied emissions through global supply chains to consumers.
- Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes Jucker, T.; Caspersen, J.; Chave, J.; Antin, C.; Barbier, N.; Bongers, F.; Dalponte, M.; Ewijk, K.Y. van; Forrester, D.I.; Haeni, M.; Higgins, S.I.; Holdaway, R.J.; Iida, Y.; Lorimer, C.; Marshall, P.L.; Momo, S.; Moncrieff, G.R.; Ploton, P.; Poorter, L.; Rahman, K.A.; Schlund, M.; Sonké, B.; Sterck, F.J.; Trugman, A.T.; Usoltsev, V.A.; Vanderwel, M.C.; Waldner, P.; Wedeux, B.M.M.; Wirth, C.; Wöll, H.; Woods, M.; Xiang, W.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Coomes, D.A. (2017) Type Journal Article
- Alternative routes for a proposed nigerian superhighway to limit damage to rare ecosystems and wildlife Mahmoud, M.I.; Sloan, S.; Campbell, M.; Alamgir, M.; Imong, I.; Odigha, O.; Chapman, H.M.; Dunn, A.; Laurance, W.F. (2017) Type Journal Article
- Analysis of corrective action requests from Forest Stewardship Council audits of natural forest management in Indonesia Hermudananto; Romero, C.; Ruslandi; Putz, Francis E.; Forest Stewardship Council (2018) Type Journal Article
- An Analysis of Forest Management Non-Conformities to FSC Standards in Different European Countries Halalisan, A.F.; Ioras, F.; Korjus, H.; Avdibegović, M.; Marić, B.; Malovrh, S.P.; Abrudan, I.V.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (2016-12-14) Type Journal ArticleThe purpose of this study was to assess the most frequent non-conformities identified in different European countries in the processes of forest management certification according to FSC standards. A total of 31 active certificates from five countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Estonia, Romania, Slovenia and the United Kingdom) were analysed, including all active certificates (as of 1st of June 2014) from three countries along with a sample of 13 FSC certificates issued in the UK and one certificate covering 95% of the certified forest area in Slovenia. 253 non-conformities in relation to FSC standard requirements were identified as formulated by the audit teams and the most frequently identified non-conformities in the certification process were those related to Principle 6 - Environmental impact (34%), Principle 4 - Community relations and worker's rights (17%) and Principle 8 - Monitoring and Assessment (13%). A slight positive correlation was noticed between the FSC certified area and the total number of non-conformities, with a closer link in the case of Principle 9 - Maintenance of high conservation value forests, and Principle 4. The non-conformities related to Principles 4, 6 and 9 appeared to be significantly influenced in occurrence by country development; less often in the UK compared with the other four countries.
- An analysis of non-state and state approaches for forest certification in Mexico García-Montiel, E.; Cubbage, F.W.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.; Lujan-Álvarez, C.; Montiel Antuna, E.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (2017) Type Journal ArticleMexico has had a non-state forest certification system under the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) since it was initiated in 1993, and developed a new state-sponsored Mexican Forest Certification System (MFCS) that began in 2008. Several analyses have been made of FSC forest certification in Mexico, but none have summarized the new MFCS system or compared its standards with FSC. We compare the implementation of the non-state FSC market forest certification with the state-sponsored MFCS system in Mexico, and review literature on forest certification, focusing on all studies in Mexico. MFCS has had substantial enrollment of more than 902,802 ha by 2016, compared to 900,388 ha for the more-established FSC program. MFCS can be acceptable for stand-alone forest certification, and might be viewed as a stepwise path to FSC certification. The merits of both systems are analyzed in terms of standard content, likely sustainable forestry practices, access to markets, and community forestry enterprises.
- An Analysis of Social Aspects of Forest Stewardship Council Forest Certification in Three Ontario Case Studies Venne, M.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (Wilfrid Laurier University, 2007) Type ThesisForest certification is a market-based tool whereby forest management is evaluated against a set of standards that consider environmental, economic and social elements of sustainability. Certification is therefore a means of providing customers with the assurance that forest products are originating from sustainably managed forests. It grew out of the ideal of sustainable forest management (SFM) and pulls from its predecessor the concept of multiple dimensions of sustainability. The focus of this project was the international forest certification scheme Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). A comparative case study approach was used to examine the social implications of certification in three FSC cases across Ontario. These cases include: Westwind Forest Stewardship Inc., Nipissing Forest Resource Management Inc., and Clergue Forest Management Inc. The purpose of this study is to examine how, and to what extent, social issues are being addressed. Three case studies are used to examine and compare how different forests deal with the social principles in the certification process. FSC addresses four main social issues which are the focus of research: consultation and public participation processes, recognition of Indigenous rights and culture, employee rights and community rights and well-being. Semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and a document review were used to examine attitudes and opinions of social issues in certification, as well as the details and potential impacts surrounding specific social issues. This study concludes that FSC certification had only a limited impact on the four social issues in the three case studies. FSC did not make any fundamental changes; although it did improve representation, discussion of social issues, and relationships with stakeholder groups. The Nipissing and Westwind case study participants reported or attributed more changes to FSC certification than did those in the Algoma case study. The results of this study indicate that factors such as the strength of the Ontario forestry regulatory system and the economic downturn of forestry in Canada limited the amount of impact certification had on social issues in the three case studies. The awareness and strength of social principles in FSC policy need to be strengthened in order for certification to make a true impact on forest management in Ontario.
- Analysis of socioeconomic impacts of the FSC and PEFC certification systems on business entities and consumers Michal, J.; Březina, D.; Šafařík, D.; Kupčák, V.; Sujova, A.; Fialová, J.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc) (2019) Type Journal Article
- Analyzing Strategies to Enhance Small and Low Intensity Managed Forests Certification in Europe using SWOT-ANP Di Lallo, G.; Maesano, M.; Masiero, M.; Mugnozza, G.S.; Marchetti, M.; Forest Stewardship Council (2016) Type Journal Article