Browsing Impact Resources by Type "Report"
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- Biodiversity conservation in certified forests Sheil, D.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (Tropenbos International, 2010) Type ReportThe loss and degradation of tropical forest have become issues of popular concern and political debate across the world. Logging was once seen as the root of the problem but over the last three decades that view has altered somewhat. Although the subject of logging remains contentious, and environmental NGOs are divided, there is some acceptance that even though timber production remains a threat to the long-term viability of tropical forest biodiversity, it may also make a positive contribution. The promotion of socially and ecologically sound forest management — through forest certification1 — has changed the narrative. Certification is now widely advocated as a strategy to conserve the world's forests and the biodiversity they contain. Some consumers will pay a premium for products that promise "biodiversity friendly" forest management and some markets are closing to non-certified forest products. Approximately 8% of global forest area has been certified under a variety of schemes (FAO 2009). One recent estimate suggests that approximately one quarter of global industrial roundwood now comes from certified forests (FAO 2009). Most of these advances have occurred outside the tropics: less than 2% of forest area in African, Asian and tropical American forests are certified. Most certified forests (82%) are large and managed by the private sector (ITTO 2008). Increasing the extent of certification in the tropics remains a goal for many organizations – including some international conservation NGOs. So far, so good, but many details remain uncertain.
- Certification - a Discussion of Equity Issues Thornber, K.; Mixed sources; Forest Stewardship Council (International Institute for Environment and Development, 2003) Type ReportForest certification was initiated as a tool to promote sustainable forest management (SFM) through communicating to consumers that wood products were verified as originating from well-managed forests. It is essentially a communication tool to link "good producers" with market demand. This has remained the underlying goal, even if many of the drivers of certification have been primarily concerned about their market access. Many of the original proponents of it believed that, whilst small producers would be easily certified, it would be more challenging to bring big business on board. FSC certification was the first international forest certification scheme, and it was very much designed with communities in mind. It was implicitly expected that it would work well for and benefit community level enterprises and improve equity in the forest industry. However, only a few of the actors in certification have made improved equity an overt goal - notably, the social "chamber" members of the FSC, and some of the development assistance support to certification. The expectation that certification can address equitable sharing of powers over forests, and benefits from forest management, continues - with development agencies and NGOs often seeing certification as a tool to improve livelihoods. But the history to date of FSC in particular shows that big business has been keen to be involved in certification, and trends (see below) show them at the forefront of the application of certification. This shows the strength and success of certification as a market- based instrument (MBI), but also raises concerns about equity, in terms of who can achieve it and who can benefit from it. This paper discusses these equity issues raised by forest management certification, and their implications to all stakeholders, but with a focus on the poor, smaller producers and poorer producer countries. It aims to highlight areas for improvement - an approach consistent with the philosophy of certification itself - and considers what the limitations of certification might be as a tool to address equity and livelihoods.
- Certification and roundtables: do they work ? World Wide Fund for Nature; Unreported; Forest Stewardship Council (World Wide Fund for Nature, 2010) Type ReportMulti-stakeholder Sustainability Initiatives (MSIs) are voluntary market-based approaches that aim to transform business practices by developing more responsible production, sourcing, and manufacturing practices for a given sector or product. This review asks the question: are MSIs measurably and permanently shifting markets towards improved economic, environmental and social outcomes?
- Certification's impacts on forests, stakeholders and supply chains Bass, S.; Thornber, K.; Markopoulos, M.D.; Roberts, S.; Grieg-Gran, M.; Mixed; Private; Forest Stewardship Council (International Institute for Environment and Development, 2001) Type Report
- Certifying Integrity? Forest Certification and Anti-Corruption Soreide, T.; Williams, A.; Mixed sources; Forest Stewardship Council (U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, 2013) Type ReportForest certification schemes regulate forest exploitation and trade across many countries. In the absence of a multilateral agreement on limiting deforestation, they provide a framework of rules to balance the social, economic and ecological values of forest resources, bringing together stakeholders such as environmental NGOs, local forest managers, and major buyers of forest products. Expansion of these schemes into tropical forested countries that display poor governance and high levels of perceived corruption has raised questions about these schemes' performance in such contexts. This U4 Issue Paper asks whether forest certification is capable of addressing issues of corruption in poor governance settings, referring throughout to the case of the Forest Stewardship Council. We find that forest certification is not primarily geared towards detecting and preventing corruption in the forest sector. In country settings where corruption is sporadic but not systemic, certification may have some anti-corruption effects due to its role in documenting forest management practices and applying third- party monitoring. Its piecemeal implementation coupled with limited engagement with national forest policy-makers and -frameworks means certification efforts in settings where corruption is systemic is likely to make few, if any, anti-corruption contributions. In such settings, donors can help build a more explicit anti-corruption focus by ensuring certification is complemented by other policy initiatives aimed at improving national forest governance.
- Combining organic and FSC certification of Non-Timber Forest Products. Reducing costs, increasing options Bowyer, J.; Fernholz, K.; Howe, J.D.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (Dovetail Partners Inc., 2006) Type Report
- Comparability and acceptance of forest certification systems Purbawiyatna, A.; Simula, M.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (ITTO, 2008) Type ReportThis report reviews and assesses progress in the comparability and equivalence of forest certification systems, particularly in view of the promotion of tropical timber certification. It is needed because of the proliferation of both certification systems and the market requirements for such systems in the public and private sectors of tropical timber importing countries.
- Comparative analysis of land use options within Intact Forest Landscapes: How can FSC make a difference? World Wide Fund for Nature; Forest Stewardship Council (World Wide Fund for Nature, 2018) Type Report
- Conservation impacts of voluntary sustainability standards: How has our understanding changed since the 2012 publication of 'Towards sustainability: the roles and limitations of certification?' Komives, K.; Arton, A.; Baker, E.; Kennedy, E.; Longo, C.; Pfaff, A.; Romero, C.; Newsom, D.; Mixed (Meridian Institute, 2018) Type Report
- The contemporary forest concessions in West and Central Africa: chronicle of a foretold decline? Karsenty, A.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (FAO, 2016) Type ReportDeforestation is still occurring at an alarming rate worldwide, in spite of a recent slowdown attributable essentially to the improvement of the situation in the Brazilian Amazon over the last 8- 10 years and the fact that accessible lowland forests in Sumatra and Borneo have almost all been converted. Losses of natural forests not only degrade the livelihoods of forest-dependent people, but also entail irreversible destruction of biodiversity and contribute to the aggravation of global warming, since land-use changes represent between 10 to 15% of anthropogenic carbon emissions worldwide. Given this context, industrial forest concessions are seen by some as an indirect driver of deforestation (and a direct driver of degradation), but other analysts emphasize the absence of association between selective logging and deforestation, and consider that well-managed concessions may represent an asset against pressures for forest land conversion, either by agribusiness companies or by smallholders. The forest concession concept gained traction in the last decade, being introduced in highly forested countries such as Brazil and Russia, where governments intend to use this regime to avoid leaving large tracts of forests under uncertain tenure situation which favours appropriation through illegal (but often tolerated) deforestation.
- The contribution of FSC certification to biodiversity in Estonian forests Lehtonen, E.; Stedingk, Henrik von; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Sweden, 2016) Type ReportThis study evaluates the impact of FSC certi cation to biodiversity in the Estonian forest. The bene ts for forest biodi- versity are most apparent regarding preserving different dead wood types, prohibiting forest drainage, and maintaining noble hardwoods. These conservation requirements are not covered by Estonian legislation. FSC also contributes to a larger tree species variation, more retained trees in harvested areas, and protection of large Woodland Key Habitats. The impacts of these considerations have been validated based on scienti c literature. When evaluating the FSC impact one must keep in mind that biodiversity is only one of the three pillars of FSC and sustainable forestry, together with social considerations and economic viability. FSC certi cation shall be seen as an effective and complementary tool to other conservation practices.
- The contribution of FSC certification to biodiversity in Finnish forests. Lehtonen, E.; Stedingk, Henrik von; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Sweden, 2017) Type ReportThis study evaluates the impact of FSC certi cation on biodiversity in the Finnish forest, relative to the requirements of Finnish legislation. The bene ts of FSC certi cation to forest biodiversity are most apparent regarding preserving riparian zones, promoting deciduous stands in coniferous forests, retaining biologically valuable trees in harvests, and protecting habitats that are not protected by legislation, such as large Woodland Key Habitats. FSC places minimum, quanti able targets to conserve these features and sets requirements for measures that are only formulated as recommendations in conventional forest management. The biodiversity impacts of these considerations have been evaluated based on scienti c literature. When evaluating the FSC impact on biodiversity, one must keep in mind that biodiversity constitutes one of three pillars of FSC and sustainable forestry, together with social considerations and economic viability. FSC certi cation works as a complement to legislation and other conservation practices applied in Finland for a more sustainable forestry. The report was produced by FSC Sweden in collaboration with FSC Finland. Authors are Emily Lehtonen and Henrik von Stedingk, Layout Märta Lindqvist, FSC Sweden. Contributions have been made by Eveliina Puhakka, FSC Finland, and the reference group: Kimmo Syrjänen, Erkki Eteläaho, Lauri Kajander, Inka Musta and Timo Kuuluvainen. The study was funded by ACE – The Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment.
- The contribution of FSC certification to biodiversity in Latvian forests Lehtonen, E.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Sweden, 2017) Type ReportThis study evaluates the contribution of FSC certi cation to biodiversity in the Latvian forest, relative to the requirements of Latvian legislation. Where FSC requirements go above those of legislation, the biodiversity impacts have been assessed using scienti c literature. The contributions of FSC certi cation to forest biodiversity are most apparent regarding setting aside forest areas from forestry, promoting native tree species and wet forest stands, retaining biologically valuable trees and dead wood, and protecting habitats that are not protected by legislation, such as many Woodland Key Habitats. For other biodiversity aspects, such as promoting deciduous trees and landscape planning, FSC requirements match those of legislation or more research is required to assess the contribution. When evaluating FSC's impact on biodiversity, one must also keep in mind that biodiversity constitutes one of three pillars of FSC's work for a responsible forest management, together with social considerations and economic viability. As such, FSC certi cation works as a complement to legislation and other conservation practices applied in Latvia. This report was produced by FSC Sweden in collaboration with FSC Latvia. Authors are Emily Lehtonen and Henrik von Stedingk, Layout Märta Lindqvist, FSC Sweden. Contributions have been made by Imants Kr?ze, FSC Latvia, and the reference group: Sandra Ikauniece and Rolands Auzi?š, Nature Conservation Agency Latvia. The study was funded by ACE – the Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment.
- The contribution of FSC-certification to biodiversity in Swedish forests Lagerqvist, M.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (FSC Sweden, Enetjärn Natur AB, 2013) Type Report