Browsing Impact Resources by Type "Thesis"
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- An Analysis of Social Aspects of Forest Stewardship Council Forest Certification in Three Ontario Case Studies Venne, M.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (Wilfrid Laurier University, 2007) Type ThesisForest certification is a market-based tool whereby forest management is evaluated against a set of standards that consider environmental, economic and social elements of sustainability. Certification is therefore a means of providing customers with the assurance that forest products are originating from sustainably managed forests. It grew out of the ideal of sustainable forest management (SFM) and pulls from its predecessor the concept of multiple dimensions of sustainability. The focus of this project was the international forest certification scheme Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). A comparative case study approach was used to examine the social implications of certification in three FSC cases across Ontario. These cases include: Westwind Forest Stewardship Inc., Nipissing Forest Resource Management Inc., and Clergue Forest Management Inc. The purpose of this study is to examine how, and to what extent, social issues are being addressed. Three case studies are used to examine and compare how different forests deal with the social principles in the certification process. FSC addresses four main social issues which are the focus of research: consultation and public participation processes, recognition of Indigenous rights and culture, employee rights and community rights and well-being. Semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and a document review were used to examine attitudes and opinions of social issues in certification, as well as the details and potential impacts surrounding specific social issues. This study concludes that FSC certification had only a limited impact on the four social issues in the three case studies. FSC did not make any fundamental changes; although it did improve representation, discussion of social issues, and relationships with stakeholder groups. The Nipissing and Westwind case study participants reported or attributed more changes to FSC certification than did those in the Algoma case study. The results of this study indicate that factors such as the strength of the Ontario forestry regulatory system and the economic downturn of forestry in Canada limited the amount of impact certification had on social issues in the three case studies. The awareness and strength of social principles in FSC policy need to be strengthened in order for certification to make a true impact on forest management in Ontario.
- A Cost Benefit Analysis of Forest Certification at The Forestland Group Schreiber, J.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (Duke University, 2012) Type ThesisThis project evaluates the costs and benefits of the Forest Stewardship Council's (FSC) forest certification for a large timber management organization (TIMO). FSC certification is a voluntary, market-based program that promotes sustainable forest management through third-party certification. The TIMO in this case study manages 3.3 million acres of land certified under FSC, and this project evaluated both the direct and indirect costs and benefits of certification. This project was able to quantify the direct and indirect costs and benefits of forest certification through surveys, financial analyses and regression analyses. On average, forest certification is a net-positive program for the client, earning an estimated $771,000 of additional annual revenue. Certification premiums paid for finished wood products are significantly higher than certification premiums for certified stumpage. Certified wood products receive an overall price premium of 10.5% while the premium for certified stumpage ranges from 1.6-4.3%. Price premiums for finished wood products are considerably higher for domestic sales than for export sales. The domestic sale of finished wood products generates a statistically significant price premium of 30.0% as compared to the statistically significant but much lower premium for exported wood products of 3.4%. This project provides evidence that there are financial incentives for forestland owners to maintain forest certification. FSC has marketed both the ecological and financial benefits of maintaining forest certification. Previous studies of forest certification have generally concluded that the ecological benefits of forest certification are clear but that the desired financial benefits have not yet materialized. This project demonstrates that a large timberland owner can receive meaningful financial benefits from its forest certification program.
- The current market development of certified paper - Special emphasis on German publishers Bihlmaier, C.; Unreported; Forest Stewardship Council (Larenstein University, 2008) Type ThesisThe purpose of this thesis was to analyse the paper market in order to identify possible trends towards a greater use of certified, paper and to determine which of the dominant forest certification schemes is playing a more important role within this market. A sub-goal of the thesis was to identify and describe stakeholders with similar behaviour patterns in their use of certified paper. The research thereby focuses on the European paper market, with emphasis on German publishers. To analyse the market, an empirical research with an interview and a questionnaire survey was conducted. 12 representatives of different parts of the paper value chain presented their points of view on the present and future market situation, as well as on their motivation and the drivers to use certified paper. In the questionnaire survey, 237 publishers and 17 paper producers have been asked about their view of the present market situation, for example which paper certification label is mainly demanded, about the advantages the existing labels offer, and how those publishers and producers are going to react on the development of the certified paper market. Information were also gained by an evaluation of literature on paper certification schemes. The future of the paper market will be dominated by two paper labels – PEFC (Pan European Forest Certification) and FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). The surveys conducted for this thesis confirmed a trend towards certified paper in general, and FSC mainly being the favoured label. The trend towards an increasing use of FSC is omnipresent, and some well known companies like BBC Worldwide, Random House or the mail-order firm Otto already use FSC paper for print media with high circulation figures. Most players involved in this study stated that PEFC is not seen as equivalent to FSC regarding its credibility and marketing opportunities. The analysis of the two certification systems revealed that FSC profits from its better control mechanisms and the support of NGOs, whereby PEFC profits from its lower costs and a higher acceptance and support by forest owners and managers. Most publications on certified paper, which actively use the label on the products, use FSC paper. Only two projects could be identified within the frame of this study, which publicly use the PEFC-label, but only one of them is using the PEFC-label in the imprint of the respective publication. It is likely that the number of certified print products with a label on them will increase. According to the results of the questionnaire and the interviews, both certification systems will grow in market presence. FSC evidently has currently a greater market presence and will gain faster in importance in the future than PEFC, and therefore will be the more important scheme for the paper market. The existing trend towards certified paper was regarded differently by the various groups of stakeholders involved in this study. It is to expect that for example most forest owners in Germany or Finland will continue to favour PEFC over the next years. The growing demand for FSC paper, however, could change this to some extend. The paper producers, dependent on the raw material, are stuck between two sides. They wish to increase their production of FSC paper to serve the growing market demand. But because of this high demand and the stronger preference of PEFC by forest owners and managers, they are confronted with a lack of suitable raw material and therefore can't meet the demand for FSC paper. Service providers like print offices experience an increasing demand for certified paper. They report that in most cases, clients ask for FSC, and only if FSC is not available, they are considering PEFC as an alternative, which was also confirmed in the interview with PEFC Germany. This mechanism could lead to a stronger appearance of the PEFC logo in future, caused rather by an insufficient availability of FSC paper than by a deliberate choice.
- Differences in effectiveness of forest certification between the global North and South, a problem of inclusiveness ? Ravenhorst, A.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (Universiteit Leiden, 2019) Type ThesisEven though forest certification was initially created in order to protect tropical forests, research has shown that these systems have not been effective at certifying tropical forests in the global South compared to boreal and temperate forests in the global North. Tropical forests are vital for our planet's health and it is thus important to study this difference and analyse the possible causes. This thesis intends to find new insights by investigating whether the difference in effectiveness can be explained by differences in inclusiveness. In order to answer the research question, this thesis will compare two cases that have both been described as successful examples of forest certification: the FSC in Sweden and the FSC in Bolivia. By comparing a tropical to a non-tropical country, which has hardly been done before, this thesis will contribute to broader area of literature concerned with the emergence, evolution and effectiveness of forest certification within the field of environmental governance. These two cases are especially interesting because both are described as successful, yet still have a huge difference in effectiveness in terms of percentage of total forest area being certified. Studying this difference and analysing the underlying causes is imperative to better understand why forest certification has been more effective in the global North than in the global South.
- Discussing REDD+ and the Experience of FSC-Certified CFEs in Mexico - Insights from a Network Governance Perspective Deschamps Ramirez, P.; Forest Stewardship Council (Oxford University, 2012) Type Thesis
- Economic impacts of FSC certification on international trade of forest products Sun, M.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (University of Toronto, 2012) Type ThesisThe objective of this study is to investigate the economic impacts of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification on global trade of forest products. Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) is used to predict export, import and net trade quantity of several forest products from year 2006 to 2056. The simulation findings suggest that: (1) Under the assumption that FSC certification plays negative effects on forest stock, Europe reduced sawnwood export; while Ireland became the net importer of sawnwood and wood pulp for next fifty years. (2) Under the assumption that FSC certification has no effects on forest stock, North America, Europe and Asia became the three major sawnwood importers; Europe and North America dominated sawnwood export; Africa significantly expanded its market share of sawnwood export from 1.3% in 2006 to 8.8% in 2056. Africa and Asia became the two largest importers of fuelwood. (3) Under the assumption that FSC certification plays positive effects on forest stock, Europe increased its export of sawnwood; Ireland became the net exporter of sawnwood and wood pulp since 2026. However, FSC certification has no impact on the trend of forestry stocks and products in Canada.
- An examination of challenges and issues facing sustainable forest management and forest certification in China Chen, J.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2011) Type ThesisThis study investigated the challenges facing the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification in China. To achieve this goal, the perceptions of four influential direct and indirect stakeholders were examined to reveal the awareness, understanding, interest, motivation, and barriers to adopting SFM and forest certification. The four stakeholders consisted of Chinese small-scale forest farmers who have received small forest land from the collectives through the new forest tenure reforms, Chinese market officials working for forestry property markets, Chinese wood products manufacturers, and Canadian wood products retailers. In addition, the new forest tenure reforms and their supporting mechanisms, including forestry property markets, were assessed in terms of their impacts on the promotion of SFM and certification in China. The study revealed general low levels of awareness and understanding about SFM and forest certification amongst various stakeholders in China, with forest farmers having particularly low awareness. Several challenges to the adoption of SFM and forest certification in the period before the new forest tenure reforms were identified by the small-scale forest farmers, including insecure and unclear forest tenure, inconsistent forest policies, inadequate finances, under-developed infrastructure and transport system, and lack of efficient knowledge and technical transfer. Market officials were found to have limited knowledge of SFM and forest certification but their role in educating forest farmers and promoting SFM and certification is particularly important, as government support is considered to be critical to the early and rapid uptake of SFM and certification in China. Chinese manufacturers expressed immense interest in forest certification despite the identified barriers. From their perspectives, the biggest barrier was the lack of market demand for certified wood products. Canadian retailers were chosen as a substitute of Chinese retailers to gain insights into how a more advanced market for certified wood products might evolve, and how the demand might evolve in China. The new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets are likely to overcome many of the challenges and enable forest farmers to adopt SFM and certification. That said, the widespread adoption of SFM and certification amongst various stakeholders has a long way to go.
- Forest certification for community-based forest enterprises in Brazil's Western Amazon: stakeholders' perceptions of negative and positive aspects of certification and how to improve the certification process Humphries, S.S.; Private funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc); Forest Stewardship Council (University of Florida, 2005) Type ThesisIn recent decades community forest management has been a popular strategy in programs aimed at assisting local populations to conserve their forests and improve their livelihoods. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification is being recommended for community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) as a way to improve market access for their products. However, certification has proved more difficult for CFEs than expected, and few certified operations have achieved its highly anticipated market benefits. This has led to questioning of certification's compatibility with CFEs. This study investigates perceptions of certification for three CFEs in Brazil's western Amazon. The specific objectives were (1) to determine the negative and positive aspects of certification as perceived by community members, their principal support organizations, and other key stakeholders; (2) to identify the relative importance of these perceived negative and positive aspects, (3) to analyze the differences in perceptions between actors, and (4) to identify actors' suggestions for improving the certification process for CFEs. Data were collected through structured interviews and a review of pertinent documents. Overall, the most positive aspects were economic and social, and the most negative aspects concerned the certification process and, to a lesser extent, the associated economic expenditures. The perceived importance of these aspects varied among the informants. For example, the community members typically scored the positive aspects higher and the negative aspects lower than the support organizations. This is likely due to differences in the roles and vantage points of these actors. The recommendations for improving the certification process included (1) simplify the certification standards and procedures for CFEs, and (2) better prepare certifiers to work with CFEs. In general, the informants agreed that the positive aspects of certification outweighed the negative ones. This stands in sharp contrast to communities in other parts of Latin America that are contemplating dropping certification. Brazil has made increasing its number of certified CFEs a priority, and has taken important steps towards this end. Two particular enabling conditions may have helped the operations in this study overcome common constraints for CFEs: (1) membership in a regional producers group, and (2) strong political, technical, and financial support from the state government. These three operations serve as important references for the rest of the Brazilian Amazon, as well as the globe. Their experiences highlight the need to adapt the certification process for CFEs and demonstrate that obtaining market benefits is possible. A wider application of certification in CFEs stands to benefit communities, forests, and consumers.
- FSC's Chain of Custody Certification: The Missing Link to a decent work and decent living through Forest Certification? Zettergren, F.; Unreported; Forest Stewardship Council (University of Fribourg, 2011) Type ThesisForest certification systems emerged after the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, as an instrument to hinder deforestation and forest degradation, especially in tropical forests. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), launched in 1993 by environmental NGOs, is an independent, not-for-profit organisation which promotes responsible management of the world's forests by means of certification and labelling of forest products. Eco-labelling is a way to encourage consumers to differentiate between more and less socially and environmentally sustainable products, services, facilities or practises. In the past, such environmental labelling schemes were hampered by companies which created their own eco-labels, and in a surreptitious manner, passed their products off as sounder than their competitors. To avoid such problems with transparency, companies who set out to attain an FSC certification consent to have their company's performances assessed and regularly audited in an independent, FSC-accredited, third-party verification. If the certification is successful, FSC's label shows that the company meets FSC's standards. In the beginning, FSC's exertions were in principal environmentally focused. Today, FSC has broadened its standards to include a range of social aspects, addressing, for example, tenure rights for indigenous people and labour conditions for workers. However, these social aspects are only covered in FSC's Forest Management certification (of the forest), whilst the second certification, the Chain of Custody, refers to the generic process of tracking the wood through the whole supply chain (e.g. plywood factories, sawmills) after it leaves the forest, until it reaches the consumers. Hence, the Chain of Custody certification lacks social criteria stipulating the minimum acceptable labour standards inside, for instance, FSC certified wood producing factories. This thesis discusses the impacts that FSC's certifications have had on different stakeholders' working conditions, social development and if FSC's certifications have lead to "a Decent Work'. An ethnographic field study was conducted at an FSC certified company in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Different groups of workers, covered by the two certifications, and indigenous communises were interviewed. Using qualitative semi structured interviews allowed different stakeholders' perspectives of the impact FSC's certifications to be examined. The results show a difference in impact depending on the workers work contract (permanent, contractor or a sub-contract worker) for both certifications. Sub-contractors and contract workers lacked social protection and the right to social dialogue, something that the permanent workforce had. Occupational Safety and Health standards were found to be worryingly low for most workers. Whilst some respondents identified some improvements in labour conditions after the company received the certification (minimum salaries, work hour regulations), the cause was identified as down to government regulations. The indigenous communities, however, reported improvements in their economical situation, social welfare and in conflict resolution and identified it as due to the certification. It is argued in this thesis that unless social standards are implemented throughout the whole certification chain, nothing is linking decent working practices, from the forest, through the factories, until the wood reaches the consumers. Therefore, timber can be sold by an FSC certified company, where some workers lack basic safety equipment, social protection and decent working conditions.
- A Law and Economics Analysis of Policy Instruments to Prevent Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Tropics Lan, C.C.; Unreported; Forest Stewardship Council (Erasmus University, 2019) Type ThesisTropical forests are a crucial ecosystem to human's survival. It generates oxygen, regulates global carbon cycles and climate, and provides homes to the lives on earth. Tropical forests also provide more than 5000 kinds of traded commercial commodities around the world, encompassing pharmaceutical products, food, fuel, timber, cosmetics and clothing, etc. (SCBD, 2009). These forests are thus vital to the economic welfare and development of our society. However, these forests nowadays are threatened by deforestation and forest degradation across all tropical regions. Global deforestation and forest degradation continue across tropical regions at alarming rates, which imply significant repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon balances, long-term sustainability and human well-being (Austin, González-Roglich, Schaffer-Smith, Schwantes, and Swenson, 2017). Deforestation is the removal/clearcutting of forest for agricultural use, mining or infrastructure development, etc. It results in a decrease in forest cover in a given area. Forest degradation on the other hand does not involve a decrease in forest area but a decrease in forest quality and its conditions. The causes of forest degradation can be selective timber harvesting, subsistence use, pest or fires, etc. A degraded forest is more likely lead to further deforestation. For a more detailed discussion, see Chapter 2, Sub-section 2.2. Throughout this thesis, most of the time forest degradation is not stated explicitly but is implied when mentioning deforestation. Between 2000 and 2012, there were approximately 230,000 kha of forest loss globally (M. C. Hansen et al., 2013) and more specifically, tropical deforestation is projected to accelerate due to growing demands for food, fuel, and fibre, etc. (Tilman, Balzer, Hill, and Befort, 2011).
- Review of FSC Certification Impacts: Experience of Natural Forest Concessionaires within IDH and TBI support in Indonesia Karsidi, A.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (University of Canterbury, 2019) Type ThesisVoluntary certification is an option to support the sustainable environmental, economic and social development of enterprises operating in natural forests. FSC certification is the oldest and most preferred voluntary scheme for natural forest concessionaires in Indonesia. After three decades, the progress of certification in Indonesia is considered slow and still depends on financial support from foreign donors such as IDH. Consequently, this research has been undertaken to: 1) understand the problems faced by natural forest concessionaires prior to certification; 2) review the impacts of certification regarding costs, advantages, disadvantages and challenges; 3) understand the causes of certification withdrawal through a case in the concessionaires with suspended FSC certification status, namely KLIA and BIOS operating in natural mangrove forests. The impacts of certification at the concessionaire level have been analysed by examining public audit summaries paired with a survey of the concessionaire manager. This research was undertaken to focus on companies under IDH and TBI support in Indonesia that represent more than 50% of the natural forest enterprises certified by FSC in the country in 2018. Audit reports and the survey revealed that significant improvements in forest management have occurred as a result of certification, especially in environmental and health and safety features. These aspects were found to be the most frequently mentioned issues before certification in more than 80% of assessed logging companies. This research also found that the estimated cost of certification ranges from less than US$2 to US$7/ha. The estimated price premium and additional sales as a result of certification varied from 0% to 20% and 0% to 40% respectively. The disadvantages of certification were found to be the costs (preparation and audits) and the length of time taken in the process of certification. Meanwhile, raising staff awareness and post-certification costs remain as considerable challenges after the certificate has been granted. The case study found that certification might be more challenging in small business operations and non-integrated companies although the group scheme has been widely promoted to address the cost issue. Hence, small enterprises continue to depend on the assistance of external parties. Overall, FSC certification impacts on the social and environmental factors are considered prominent while monetary benefits are still low
- Social, ecological and economic impacts of forest certification: case study of FSC certified Estonian State Forest Management Center Hain, H.; Public funds (government, EU funding, public research grants); Forest Stewardship Council (2005) Type Thesis