Pesticides alternative strategy for Replacement of Animal (Sheep, Rabbit, Rat, Browsing mammals)

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Pesticides, Chemicals
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Alternative Strategy
Highly unpleasant chemicals can be used for conditioned taste aversion. E.g. cynarine, a very bitter ingredient of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) or artichoke thistle (wild artichoke C. cardunculus) is physiologically active and stimulates biliary secretion (Panizzi & Scarpati 1954). Extract of artichoke.leaves or a paste made from artichoke powder could have similar properties as purified cynarine. Extract or powder of bitter lupine (white lupine, Lupinus albus) might be an effective emetic. Lupine contains alkaloids that are toxic to grazing sheep, especially in autumn during the plant's seeding stage. It has a bitter taste and animals will avoid this if other food sources are present (Hartmann 1991). Trials on the aversive effect of cynarine (or possibly artichoke extract) and bitter lupine extract could clarify if either of these can be used for conditioned taste aversion, by treating the bark of vulnerable trees. A chemical that acts as an emetic in rabbits is lithium chloride (Wiggins et al 1989). Another chemical emetic is cyclophosphamide. A botanical compound with a likely taste aversive effect is red squill, which is extracted from the bulb of red squill (Urginea scilla) or white squill (U. maritima). It contains bitter glucosides and is used as a rodenticide for poisoning rats. In most animals other than rats (which cannot vomit), red squill acts as an emetic and induces vomiting (ICWDM 2005).
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