Impacts of sustainable forestry certification in European forest management operations
The article evaluates impacts of forest certification in promoting sustainable forest management in Europe. Forest certification is one of the most widespread non-governmental initiatives for sustainable forest management with 400 million ha being certified by 2011.We have analysed 1000 non-conformities raised by certification bodies during 245 FSC forest management audits in 32 European countries. The raised non-conformities indicate the areas where certification has had largest impact on enforcing sustainable forest management. Results reveal biggest challenges in ensuring protection of nature values and stakeholder communication.