The contribution of FSC certification to biodiversity in Latvian forests
This study evaluates the contribution of FSC certi cation to biodiversity in the Latvian forest, relative to the requirements of Latvian legislation. Where FSC requirements go above those of legislation, the biodiversity impacts have been assessed using scienti c literature. The contributions of FSC certi cation to forest biodiversity are most apparent regarding setting aside forest areas from forestry, promoting native tree species and wet forest stands, retaining biologically valuable trees and dead wood, and protecting habitats that are not protected by legislation, such as many Woodland Key Habitats. For other biodiversity aspects, such as promoting deciduous trees and landscape planning, FSC requirements match those of legislation or more research is required to assess the contribution. When evaluating FSC's impact on biodiversity, one must also keep in mind that biodiversity constitutes one of three pillars of FSC's work for a responsible forest management, together with social considerations and economic viability. As such, FSC certi cation works as a complement to legislation and other conservation practices applied in Latvia. This report was produced by FSC Sweden in collaboration with FSC Latvia. Authors are Emily Lehtonen and Henrik von Stedingk, Layout Märta Lindqvist, FSC Sweden. Contributions have been made by Imants Kr?ze, FSC Latvia, and the reference group: Sandra Ikauniece and Rolands Auzi?š, Nature Conservation Agency Latvia. The study was funded by ACE – the Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment.