Forest Certification in Russia
Even though Russian society and timber markets do not have entrenched values of environmentalism, market forces have cross-border influence and through certification sustainable forestry can be imported to Russia. There are national and Pan European initiatives in Russia, which are in the initial stages with processes much less developed then FSC. FSC is also in the early stages. However it has the potential to develop in the European part of Russia. It is driven both by NGO networks and business. This paper shows the detailed processes through which FSC is imported to Russia and chains of supply are linked to chains of demands. It compares the effectiveness of FSC adoption in the European part of Russia versus that in Asian Russia, where markets show less sensitivity to the value of sustainable forestry. The paper demonstrates an essential role of environmental NGO networks, especially WWF and Greenpeace, in promoting FSC. The paper analyzes how new institutions related to FSC are taking hold in Russia and the economic, social and environmental impacts of certification.