FSC reflected in scientific and professional literature: Literature study on the outcomes and impacts of FSC certification

dc.contributor.authorKarmann, M.
dc.titleFSC reflected in scientific and professional literature: Literature study on the outcomes and impacts of FSC certificationen
dcterms.accessRightsOpen access
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKarmann, M. and Smith, A., 2009. FSC reflected in scientific and professional literature. Literature study on the outcomes and impacts of FSC certification.. FSC Policy Series No, p.P001.en
dcterms.licenseCopyrighted; all rights reserveden
dcterms.publisherForest Stewardship Council
fsc.evidenceCategoryFSC impact-related
fsc.subjectAudits and assurance
fsc.subjectSupply chain benefits
fsc.topic.economicPrice premium
fsc.topic.politicalNational Forest Policy
is.availability.fullTextFull text available
is.contributor.funderTypePrivate funds (NGOs, companies, VSS self-funded etc)
is.contributor.memberForest Stewardship Council
is.evaluation.collectionCompany/certified entities /co-op data records
is.evaluation.collectionInterviews/surveys with certified entities and their representatives and workers/producers
is.evaluation.dataSourceData by scheme / tool under evaluation
is.evaluation.quotes"The review of the literature provides strong evidence thatFSC is today recognized as a policy tool to address many forestry issues (Cashore 2006;Conroy 2007; Meidinger et al.2005; Rametsteiner 2005; Carey & Guttenstein 2008 etc.). FSChas established itself as one of the most influential market dynamics in the forestry and woodindustry sector, with its overarching goal of promoting responsible forest management. As areaction on FSC's success other forest and other voluntary certification schemes have followed(Gulbrandson 2008)."
is.evaluation.quotes"Although the majority of interest groups involved are aware of the positive impact of forestcertification, it is still the subject of lively controversy and debate, focused on plantation forestrycertification and beyond."
is.evaluation.quotes"FSC's progressand impact is by far lower in countries with poorly defined land tenure rights and a highdegree of centralization in forest authority and decision-making, and attempts to promote certificationoutside a national FSC standard-setting process (examples from Malaysia, Indonesia),have been problematic. However, even from those countries success stories related toimproved forest management in certified forest operations can be reported."
is.evaluation.quotes"Some of the screened research papers are focusing on FSC's impact on forestmanagement, leading to changes in the management. Their evaluations are based on an indirectassessment against the certification reports (e.g. Thornber 2003; Gullison 2003, Hirschberger2005, Newsom et al 2005). The authors reveal that certification has improved theconservation status and enhanced biodiversity levels in forests. They found that forest certificationis indeed a catalyst for often substantial changes to diverse aspects of forest managementapproaches, rather than a means of rewarding operations that were already conductingexcellent forestry before certification. While certification does attract industry leaders, eventhese operations are required to make important changes to aspects of their operations as aresult of the certification process. The extensive preparation that many operations undergobefore their assessment means that the impacts represented in research papers are likely anunderestimate of the true impacts of forest certification."
is.evaluation.quotes"The majority of improvements in certified forest management units have been described forforest planning based on inventories; improved monitoring and evaluation; reduced impactlogging and improved silvicultural techniques; adoption of scientific methods, for example inestablishing permanent sample plots; and biodiversity conservation measures (Newsom et al.2005; Bass et al. 2001). These and the wider policy benefits of FSC certification are oftenclearly described, while livelihood and economic benefits appear to be less often identified."
is.evaluation.quotes"There have also been important social benefits to local communities and forest workers, forexample, in favoring employment of local people and in the area of health and safety standards,since FSC forest management standards are generally above those demanded by nationallegislation and regulations, and their implementation is monitored by certification bodies (Poschen 2003). In general, the impact of FSC certification on workers are both direct andindirect (often reported e.g. from Russia, Brazil, e.g. by Viana 2003, Azevedo et al. 2003) andas effecting new policy in relationship to workers, increasing the involvement of workers indecisions, improving health and safety, and addressing issues over migrant labor (Thornber2003, Bowling 2003, etc.)."
is.evidenceSubTypeSynthesis paper - literature review
is.evidenceTypeSynthesis paper
is.focus.productsForestry products
is.focus.sdgSDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals
is.focus.sustainIssueForests and other ecosystems
is.focus.sustainLensAudits and assurance
is.focus.sustainOutcomeSustainable sourcing
is.focus.sustainOutcomeGovernance mechanisms
is.focus.sustainOutcomeDeforestation and forest protection
is.focus.sustainOutcomeCommunity development and infrastructure
is.focus.systemElementMandE outcomes and impacts
is.focus.systemElementMandE performance monitoring
is.identifier.schemeNameForest Stewardship Council
is.identifier.schemeTypeVoluntary Sustainability Standards