Differences in effectiveness of forest certification between the global North and South, a problem of inclusiveness ?
Even though forest certification was initially created in order to protect tropical forests, research has shown that these systems have not been effective at certifying tropical forests in the global South compared to boreal and temperate forests in the global North. Tropical forests are vital for our planet's health and it is thus important to study this difference and analyse the possible causes. This thesis intends to find new insights by investigating whether the difference in effectiveness can be explained by differences in inclusiveness. In order to answer the research question, this thesis will compare two cases that have both been described as successful examples of forest certification: the FSC in Sweden and the FSC in Bolivia. By comparing a tropical to a non-tropical country, which has hardly been done before, this thesis will contribute to broader area of literature concerned with the emergence, evolution and effectiveness of forest certification within the field of environmental governance. These two cases are especially interesting because both are described as successful, yet still have a huge difference in effectiveness in terms of percentage of total forest area being certified. Studying this difference and analysing the underlying causes is imperative to better understand why forest certification has been more effective in the global North than in the global South.