Social and environmental impacts of forest management certification in Indonesia

dc.contributor.authorMiteva, D.A.
dc.contributor.authorLoucks, C.J.
dc.contributor.authorPattanayak, S.K.
dc.titleSocial and environmental impacts of forest management certification in Indonesiaen
dcterms.abstractIn response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village level data on environmental and socioeconomic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC certified timber concessions compared to noncertified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy. Resource available under a Creative Commons Attribution License ( Abstract obtained with permission, to access the full article click here:
dcterms.accessRightsOpen access
dcterms.bibliographicCitationMiteva D., A. Loucks and S. Pattanayak, 'Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia', PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7, 2015, e0129675.en
dcterms.typeJournal Article
fsc.evidenceCategoryFSC impact-related
fsc.focus.forestTypeNatural Forest
fsc.issue.environmentalDeforestation, tree cover loss
fsc.issue.environmentalForest disturbance, forest degradation
fsc.issue.socialLocal communities
fsc.issue.socialIndigenous Peoples
fsc.subjectLandscape approaches
fsc.subjectTree cover loss
fsc.subjectHealth and safety
fsc.subjectWorking conditions
fsc.topic.socialHealth and safety
fsc.topic.socialWorking conditions
fsc.topic.socialLiving conditions
fsc.topic.socialInfrastructure and Institutions
fsc.topic.socialBenefit-sharing & investment
is.availability.fullTextFull text available
is.contributor.memberForest Stewardship Council
is.coverage.regionSouth-eastern Asia
is.evaluation.comparisonTreatment vs Control
is.evaluation.dataSourceGeospatial data layers
is.evaluation.dataSourceNational Statistics - national government data
is.evaluation.findingsBetween 2000 and 2008, FSC-certification was associated with about 5 percent of more forest cover than compared to conventional logging.
is.evaluation.findingsVillages spanned by FSC-certified concessions were associated with lower levels of air pollution than villages spanned by uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsBetween 2000 and 2008, FSC-certified concessions had a 3.82% increase in perforated forest area compared to conventional concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsBetween 2000 and 2008, FSC-certified concessions had as many fires than uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsThere was increased funding from private sources to villages spanned by FSC-certified concessions than in villages spanned by uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsThere was no difference in rate of infrastructure provisions such as street lights and health centres between villages spanned by FSC-certified and uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsThere were reduced fuelwood dependences in villages spanned by FSC-certified concessions than villages spanned by uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsThere was reduced incidence of acute respiratory illness in villages spanned by FSC-certified concessions than in villages spanned by uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.findingsThere was reduced malnutrition in villages spanned by FSC-certified concessions than in villages spanned by uncertified concessions.
is.evaluation.notesThis result is significant but at a p < 0.1 level only
is.evaluation.notesThe authors mention that "one potential explanation for the cleaner air but unchanged incidence of fires is that FSC reduced the intensity and emissions from fires, while having no statistically significant impact on fire incidence"
is.evaluation.notesThe authors mention that "a likely explanation is that infrastructure takes time to put in place"
is.evaluation.quotesUsing data from 2000-2008 in Kalimantan, we find that FSC certification significantly reduced deforestation by 5 percentage points and air pollution by 31% compared to the matched control villages in non-certified logging concessions.
is.evaluation.quotesWe find that, compared to the villages in non-certified logging concessions, FSC in Kalimantan generated positive benefits to local communities (e.g., reduced disease incidence and fuelwood dependence, and increased private funding).
is.evaluation.significanceStatistically significant
is.evidenceSubTypeEmpirical study - with matched control, data collected before and after intervention
is.evidenceTypeEmpirical study
is.focus.productsForestry products
is.focus.sdgSDG 15 - Life on Land
is.focus.sustainIssueForests and other ecosystems
is.focus.sustainLensLandscape approaches
is.focus.sustainOutcomeDeforestation and forest protection
is.focus.sustainOutcomeEcosystem quality
is.focus.systemElementMandE outcomes and impacts
is.focus.systemElementMandE performance monitoring
is.identifier.schemeNameForest Stewardship Council
is.identifier.schemeTypeVoluntary Sustainability Standards
is.item.reviewStatusPeer reviewed
is.journalNamePLoS ONE