Managed Citizenship: Global Forest Governance and Democracy in Russian Communities

dc.contributor.authorTysiachniouk, Maria
dc.contributor.authorHenry, L.A.
dc.titleManaged Citizenship: Global Forest Governance and Democracy in Russian Communitiesen
dcterms.accessRightsLimited access
dcterms.typeJournal Article
fsc.evidenceCategoryFSC impact-related
fsc.focus.sustainDimensionPolitical, legal, systemic
fsc.subjectForest certification
fsc.subjectDue dilligence
fsc.subjectPolicy Vacuum
fsc.subjectTransnational Business Governance Interactions
fsc.topic.socialConsultation, participation, empowerment
is.availability.fullTextFull text available
is.contributor.memberForest Stewardship Council
is.coverage.countryRussian Federation
is.coverage.regionEastern Europe
is.evaluation.collectionCase studies
is.evaluation.notesThey explain that FSC certification has had a variety of impacts related to introducing a new model of democratic governance and citizenship in Russia. Prior to certification, the terminology of ‘stakeholder' was virtually unknown, as was the concept of stakeholder rights and responsibilities. The authors say that these new ideas about stakeholder citizenship remain in some tension with both local conceptions of firms' obligations to communities and with the role that the Russian state sees for itself in forest governance.
is.evaluation.notesBeyond the certified operations, the authors find that the FSC GGN has fostered new varieties of public engagement and new models of governance in Russia. They describe that, beginning in the late 1990s, FSC encouraged intersectoral dialogue between NGOs and business – dialogue that had not previously existed. They summarize: “FSC certification also injected global norms and values into political discussion at the local level in Russia. Requirements for FSC certification, combined with NGO pressure, have forced companies to adopt new approaches to corporate social responsibility that include closer interaction with local communities. One of the most notable aspects of this engagement in the Russian context was that the role of the government, generally the dominant actor, was absent. Government interests were just one of many stakeholders at the local level rather than the primary decision-maker, and the government is not formally incorporated into the decision-making institutions of the FSC.”
is.evaluation.notesThe authors examined the political implications of FSC certification and its requirements for participatory governance by focusing on three case studies in Russia, drawing upon data from 2002 to 2014. They argue that one of the unintended by-products of forest certification is the advancement of a specific type of citizenship, what they call “managed citizenship”. In managed citizenship, local communities are empowered by new rights endowed to them by a global governance generating network (GGN), such as FSC. Through the GGN, local stakeholders may become involved in long-term initiatives that provide new opportunities to participate in democratic governance. However, citizens' involvement is cultivated, directed, and circumscribed by actors from outside the communities, such as environmental and certification experts who educate local residents about their stakeholder status. They also find that the persistent weakness of social interests, as opposed to environmental interests, within FSC and the effects of economic instability and weak democracy domestically contribute to the challenges of engaging local communities.
is.evaluation.quotes"At the broadest level, one could argue that FSC transformed the residents of some timber communities from solely citizens of the Russian Federation to stakeholders engaged in a global process of forest governance under which they have new rights and opportunities for participation."
is.evidenceTypeEmpirical study
is.focus.systemElementMandE outcomes and impacts
is.focus.systemElementMandE performance monitoring
is.identifier.schemeNameForest Stewardship Council
is.identifier.schemeTypeVoluntary Sustainability Standards
is.item.reviewStatusPeer reviewed
is.journalNameInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology