Impacts of nonstate, market-driven governance on Chilean forests

dc.contributor.authorHeilmayr, R.
dc.contributor.authorLambin, Eric F.
dc.titleImpacts of nonstate, market-driven governance on Chilean forestsen
dcterms.abstractGlobal markets for agricultural products, timber, and minerals are critically important drivers of deforestation. The supply chains driving land use change may also provide opportunities to halt deforestation. Market campaigns, moratoria, and certification schemes have been promoted as powerful tools to achieve conservation goals. Despite their promise, there have been few opportunities to rigorously quantify the ability of these non-state, market-driven (NSMD) governance regimes to deliver conservation outcomes. This study analyzes the impacts of three NSMD governance systems that sought to end the conversion of natural forests to plantations in Chile at the start of the 21st century. Using a multilevel, panel dataset of land use changes in Chile, we identify the impact of participation within each of the governance regimes by implementing a series of matched difference-in-differences analyses. Taking advantage of the mosaic of different NSMD regimes adopted in Chile, we explore the relative effectiveness of different policies. NSMD governance regimes reduced deforestation on participating properties by 2-23%. The NSMD governance regimes we studied included collaborative and confrontational strategies between environmental and industry stakeholders. We find that the more collaborative governance systems studied achieved better environmental performance than more confrontational approaches. Whereas many government conservation programs have targeted regions with little likelihood of conversion, we demonstrate that NSMD governance has the potential to alter behavior on high-deforestation properties. Resource freely available online through the PNAS open access option. Abstract obtained with permission, to access the full article click here:
dcterms.accessRightsOpen access
dcterms.bibliographicCitationHeilmayr, R., and E. F. Lambin. 'Impacts of Nonstate Governance on Chilean Forests'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 11, 2016, pp. 2910-2915en
dcterms.typeJournal Article
fsc.evidenceCategoryFSC impact-related
fsc.issue.environmentalDeforestation, tree cover loss
fsc.subjectTree cover loss
is.availability.fullTextFull text available
is.contributor.memberForest Stewardship Council
is.coverage.regionSouth America
is.evaluation.comparisonTreatment vs Control
is.evaluation.dataSourceIndependent researcher data
is.evaluation.findingsThe conversion rate of natural forests to plantations was reduced in FSC-certified operations compared to operations without certification.
is.evaluation.findingsThe conversion rate of natural forests to plantations was reduced in FSC-certified operations compared to operations following the JSP (Joint Solutions Project) and CERTFOR programs, both individually or combined.
is.evaluation.quotesAlthough compliance with NSMD governance is often less than that achieved through public conservation efforts such as national parks, NSMD policies tend to do a better job in targeting high-deforestation properties. As a result, NSMD governance may serve as a useful complement to traditional, government policies. Finally, greater collaboration between environmental and industry interests in establishing NSMD standards is likely to improve the environmental performance of the resulting policies.
is.evaluation.quotesThe authors also state that FSC certification, as a product of multi-stakeholder negotiations, represented the most collaborative governance regime: "Nearly all of the companies certified by FSC in its first 5 years of operation in Chile actively participated in the rule-making process for the development of FSC"'s Chilean standards. In contrast, the CERTFOR certification scheme sought to demonstrate that industry could self-regulate, without participation from civil society. Given their exclusion from the CERTFOR standard-setting process, several NGOs expressed concern over the certification scheme"'s environmental rigor. Finally, the JSP was developed through a combination of confrontational and collaborative strategies. Initially instigated through negative publicity by NGOs, industry and NGO interests eventually collaborated to develop the JSP"'s commonly agreed-upon standards."
is.evaluation.quotesFinally, the results "indicate that FSC certification was more effective in slowing forest conversion than either the more industry-friendly CERTFOR standard or the JSP moratorium. Furthermore, the CERTFOR certification standard, which arguably had the least engagement between companies and civil society, was the least effective NSMD policy."
is.evaluation.quotesThey also find that "the existence of FSC certification may have increased the rigor of environmental safeguards in the final CERTFOR standards."' This is similar to what was observed in several cases, described for example by several scholars, and described as one of the "spill-over effects"' of FSC-triggered processes.
is.evaluation.significanceStatistically significant
is.evidenceSubTypeEmpirical study - with matched control, data collected before and after intervention
is.evidenceTypeEmpirical study
is.focus.productsForestry products
is.focus.sdgSDG 15 - Life on Land
is.focus.sustainIssueForests and other ecosystems
is.focus.sustainOutcomeDeforestation and forest protection
is.focus.systemElementMandE outcomes and impacts
is.focus.systemElementMandE performance monitoring
is.identifier.schemeNameChilean Sustainable Forest Management Certification System
is.identifier.schemeNameForest Stewardship Council
is.identifier.schemeNameJoint Solutions Project
is.identifier.schemeTypeBans, moratoria, and multi-party agreements (for specific commodities/areas)
is.identifier.schemeTypeVoluntary Sustainability Standards
is.item.reviewStatusPeer reviewed
is.journalNameProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America