Monitoring the impact of certification
In spite of extensive sustainability indicators, there is a lack of quantitative evidence of the positive impact of certification on forest biodiversity. The widespread use of conventional monitoring approaches have thus far not provided conclusive information about the effects of forest certification schemes such as that of the Forest Certification Council (FSC). One of the reasons for this is thought to be the high costs of conventional monitoring (and consequently the relatively small sample sizes), which does not permit representative sampling (van der Hoeven et al. 2000; van Kuijk, Putz and Zagt 2009).